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In he wrote and directed The Asphalt Jungle , a film which broke new ground by depicting criminals as somewhat sympathetic characters, simply doing their professional work, "an occupation like any other. Some critics felt that, by this technique, Huston had achieved an almost "documentary" style.
His assistant director Albert Band explains further:. I'll never forget it. We got on that set and he composed a shot in which ten elements were working all at the same time. Took half a day to do it, but it was fantastic. He knew exactly how to shoot a picture. His shots were all painted on the spot He had a great eye and he never lost his sense of composition. Film critic Andrew Sarris considered it to be "Huston's best film", and the film that made Marilyn Monroe a recognized actress.
Sarris also notes the similar themes in many of Huston's films, as exemplified by this one: "His protagonists almost invariably fail at what they set out to do. Marilyn Monroe had her first serious role in this film. Huston said, "it was, of course, where Marilyn Monroe got her start. Even though my part was a minor one, I felt as if I were the most important performer in the picture—when I was before the camera.
This was because everything I did was important to the director. The film succeeded at the box office, and Huston was again nominated for an Oscar for best screenplay and best director, along with winning the Screen Directors Guild Award. Huston's next film, The Red Badge of Courage , was of a completely different subject: war and its effect on soldiers.
For the starring role, Huston chose World War II hero Audie Murphy to play the young Union soldier who deserts his company out of fear, but later returns to fight alongside them. MGM was concerned that the movie seemed too antiwar for the postwar period. Without Huston's input, they cut down the running time of the film from eighty-eight minutes to sixty-nine, added narration, and deleted what Huston felt was a crucial scene. The movie did poorly at the box office.
Huston suggests that it was possibly because it "brought war very close to home. Forester 's popular novel. It starred Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn in a combination of romance, comedy and adventure. Barson calls it "one of the most popular Hollywood movies of all time. Huston agreed, and the ending was rewritten. It became Huston's most successful film financially, and "it remains one of his finest works.
In Huston moved to Ireland as a result of his "disgust" at the "witch-hunt" and the "moral rot" he felt was created by investigation and hearings by the House Committee on Un-American Activities HUAC , which had affected many of his friends in the movie industry.
Huston had, with friends including director William Wyler and screenwriter Philip Dunne , established the "Committee for the First Amendment", as a response to the ongoing government investigations into communists within the film industry. The HUAC was calling numerous filmmakers, screenwriters, and actors to testify about any past affiliations.
The people who did get caught up in it were, for the most part, well-intentioned boobs from a poor background. A number of them had come from the Lower East Side of Manhattan, and out in Hollywood, they sort of felt guilty for living the good life. Their social conscience was more acute than the next fellow's. Huston took producing, writing, and directing credits for his next two films: Moulin Rouge ; and Beat the Devil Moby Dick , however, was written by Ray Bradbury , although Huston had his name added to the screenplay credit after the completion of the project.
Although Huston had personally hired Bradbury to adapt Herman Melville 's novel into a screenplay, Bradbury and Huston did not get along during pre-production. Bradbury later dramatized their relationship in the short story " Banshee. It was not until after he read Katharine Hepburn's memoir, The Making of the African Queen, that he decided that he could write "a book which is fair, which presents the Huston that I loved along with the one that I began to fear on occasion.
Huston had been planning to film Herman Melville 's Moby-Dick for the previous ten years, and originally thought the role would be an excellent part for his father, Walter Huston. The movie was filmed over a three-year period on location in Ireland, where Huston was living. The fishing village of New Bedford, Massachusetts was recreated along the waterfront; the sailing ship in the film was fully constructed to be seaworthy; and three foot whales were built out of steel, wood, and plastic.
But the film failed at the box office. Critics such as David Robinson suggested that the movie lacked the "mysticism of the book" and thereby "loses its significance. Of Huston's next five films, only The Misfits , gained critical approval. Clark Gable , the star, died of a heart attack a few weeks after the filming was completed; Marilyn Monroe never finished another film, and died a year later after being suspended during the filming of Something's Got to Give ; and costars Montgomery Clift and Thelma Ritter also died over the next decade.
During the filming, Monroe was sometimes taking prescribed drugs, which led to her arriving late on the set. Monroe also sometimes forgot her lines. Monroe's personal problems eventually led to the breakup of her marriage to playwright Arthur Miller , the scriptwriter, "virtually on set. Not only of the picture, but of life. Besides directing, he also narrates portions of the story. Film historian Stuart M. Kaminsky notes that Huston presents Sigmund Freud , played by Montgomery Clift , "as a kind of savior and messiah", with an "almost Biblical detachment.
This is the story of Freud's descent into a region as black as hell, man's unconscious, and how he let in the light. I first got into that through an experience in a hospital during the war, where I made a documentary about patients suffering from battle neuroses. I was in the army and made the picture "Let There Be Light".
That experience started my interest in psychotherapy, and to this day Freud looms as the single huge figure in that field. For his next film, Huston again traveled to Puerto Vallarta , Mexico, after meeting an architect, Guillermo Wulff, who owned property and businesses in the town. The filming took place in a beach cove called Mismaloya , about thirty minutes south of town. Huston adapted the stage play by Tennessee Williams.
Production attracted intense worldwide media attention, due to Burton bringing his celebrity mistress, actress Elizabeth Taylor who was still married to singer Eddie Fisher at the time to Puerto Vallarta. Huston liked the town where filming took place so much that he bought a house near there, as did Burton and Taylor.
Although De Laurentis had ambitions for a broader story, he realized that the subject could not be adequately covered and limited the story to less than the first half of the Book of Genesis. Huston enjoyed directing the film, as it gave him a chance to indulge his love of animals. Besides directing he also played the role of Noah and the voice of God. Every morning before beginning work, I visited the animals.
One of the elephants, Candy, loved to be scratched on the belly behind her foreleg. I'd scratch her and she would lean farther and farther toward me until there was some danger of her toppling over on me. One time I started to walk away from her, and she reached out and took my wrist with her trunk and pulled me back to her side.
It was a command: "Don't stop! Noah scratches the elephant's belly and walks away, and the elephant pulls him back to her time after time. I think the politicians who supported building the studio can take consolation in the fact that it's brought a lot of money to Ireland. We're spending more than a million dollars in Ireland and we wouldn't be here if it weren't for Ardmore. While working on Casino Royale , Huston took interest in the Irish film industry, which had historically struggled to attain domestic or international success.
In , Huston gave Taoiseach Jack Lynch a tour of Ardmore and asked to form a committee to help foster a productive Irish film industry. Huston served on the resulting committee with Irish filmmakers and journalists. Lynch also ultimately agreed to offer tax breaks to foreign production companies if they shot on location in Ireland, and signed the Film Act of Huston was interviewed in Irish journalist Peter Lennon 's Rocky Road to Dublin , where he argued that it was more important for Irish filmmakers to make films in Ireland than for foreign production companies to make international films.
After several films that were not well received, Huston returned to critical acclaim with Fat City. Based on Leonard Gardner 's novel of the same name , it was about an aging, washed-up alcoholic boxer in Stockton, California trying to get his name back on the map, while having a new relationship with a world-weary alcoholic.
It also featured an amateur boxer trying to find success in boxing. The film was nominated for several awards. Roger Ebert stated Fat City was one of Huston's best films, giving it four out of four stars. Huston had been planning to make this film since the '50s, originally with his friends Humphrey Bogart and Clark Gable. Eventually the lead roles went to Sean Connery and Michael Caine.
The movie was filmed on location in North Africa. The film was praised for its use of old-fashioned escapism and entertainment. Steven Spielberg has cited the film as one of the inspirations for his film Raiders of the Lost Ark. He returned with an offbeat and somewhat controversial film based on the novel Wise Blood.
Here, Huston showed his skills as a storyteller, and boldness when it came to difficult subjects such as religion. Adapted from the novel by Malcolm Lowry , the film was highly praised by critics, most notably for Finney's portrayal of a desperate and depressed alcoholic. The film was a success on the independent circuit. John Huston's final film is an adaptation of the classic short story by James Joyce. This may have been one of Huston's most personal films, due to his citizenship in Ireland and his passion for classic literature.
Huston directed most of the film from a wheelchair, as he needed an oxygen tank to breathe during the last few months of his life. The film was nominated for two Academy Awards, and was praised by critics. Roger Ebert eventually placed it in his Great Movies list; a section of movies he claimed to be some of the best ever made. Huston died nearly four months before the film's release date. Earlier in his career, he had played bit parts in his own films, such as the unnamed rich American in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre.
Towards the end of his career, Huston began to play more prominent roles in films by other directors. In , director Otto Preminger asked if he would portray a Boston prelate in The Cardinal , and, writes author Philip Kemp, he "virtually stole the picture. He had a little participation as did many others in 's Casino Royale as actor and director.
Huston enjoyed acting and denied that he took it all that seriously. Huston said he did not regard himself very highly as an actor, saying he was proud only of his performance in Chinatown. But he had also greatly enjoyed acting in Winter Kills. Huston is famous to a generation of fans of J. In it he played an aging filmmaker named Jake Hannaford who was having great problems getting financing for his latest uncompleted film.
Much of his portrayal was filmed in the spring of in Carefree, Arizona , at Southwestern Studio and a nearby mansion. But due to political and financial complications, The Other Side of the Wind was not released until the fall of Huston's films were insightful about human nature and human predicaments. They also sometimes included scenes or brief dialogue passages that were remarkably prescient concerning environmental issues that came to public awareness in the future, in the period starting about ; examples include The Misfits and The Night of the Iguana Huston spent long evenings carousing in the Nevada casinos after filming, surrounded by reporters and beautiful women, gambling, drinking, and smoking cigars.
According to Kaminsky, Huston's stories were often about "failed quests" by a group of different people. The group would persist in the face of poor odds, doomed at the outset by the circumstances created by an impossible situation. Another type of quest often seen in Huston's films involve a pair of potential lovers trying to face a hostile world. In addition, the quest "is preferable to the spiritless, amoral routines of life".
In the opinion of critics Tony Tracy and Roddy Flynn, " To Jameson, all of Huston's films are adaptations, and he believes that through his films there was a "cohesive world-view, not only thematically but also stylistically; there is the Huston look". Religion is also a theme that runs through many of Huston's films. In The Night of the Iguana, Kaminsky notes how Richard Burton , while preaching a sermon to his congregation, seems "lost, confused, his speech is gibberish", and leads his congregation to turn away from him.
In other films, adds Kaminsky, religion is seen as "part of the fantasy world", that the actors must overcome to survive physically or emotionally. To Barson, however, Huston was among the "least consistent" filmmakers, although he concludes that he was one of the "most interesting directors of the past sixty years". To a writer in he commented, "Criticism isn't a new experience for me.
Pictures that are now thought of as, forgive the term, classics, weren't all that well thought of at the time they came out. The characters in Huston movies hardly ever set out to achieve what they're aiming for. Sam Spade, in The Maltese Falcon , Huston's first film, ends up minus one partner and one woman he thought he could trust.
Everyone is a loser in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre , and the gold blows back into the dust and is lost in it. Ahab, in Moby Dick. The African Queen does have a happy ending, but it feels tacked-on and ridiculous, and the Queen destroys itself in destroying the German steamer. So this [Fat City] is a theme we find in Huston's work, but rarely does he fit it to characters and a time and place so well as in Fat City. Maybe that's because Huston knows the territory: he was a professional boxer himself for a while, and not a very good one.
George Stevens, Jr. John uses it like a sniper. He said, 'Stop it, stop doing that. I said, 'I give up. What do I do? That's a cut. Film writer Peter Flint pointed out other benefits to Huston's style: "He shot economically, eschewing the many protective shots favored by timid directors, and edited cerebrally so that financial backers would have trouble trying to cut scenes.
This has a great deal in common with thought processes That's why I think the camera is an eye as well as a mind. Everything we do with the camera has physiological and mental significance. According to Kaminsky, much of Huston's vision probably came from his early experience as a painter on the streets of Paris. While there, he studied art and worked at it for a year and a half. Huston continued painting as a hobby for most of his life. Kaminsky also notes that most of Huston's films "reflected this prime interest in the image, the moving portrait and the use of color.
In his first film, The Maltese Falcon , for instance, Huston sketched out all of his scenes beforehand, "like canvases of paintings". To producer George Stevens, Jr. He adds, "He was the most charismatic of the directors I knew, speaking with a soothing, melodic voice that was often mimicked, but was unique to him. While driving on Sunset Boulevard on September 25, , Huston struck and killed a pedestrian, a Brazilian dancer named Tosca Roulien.
The resulting media frenzy forced Huston to retreat temporarily from public performance, and instead worked as a screenwriter. A subsequent inquest absolved Huston of any blame for the accident. Huston loved the outdoors, especially hunting while living in Ireland. Among his life's adventures before becoming a Hollywood filmmaker, he had been an amateur boxer, reporter, short-story writer, portrait artist in Paris, a cavalry rider in Mexico, and a documentary filmmaker during World War II.
Besides sports and adventure, he enjoyed hard liquor and relationships with women. Stevens describes him as someone who "lived life to its fullest". His daughter, Anjelica Huston , noted that he did not like Hollywood, and "especially despised Beverly Hills He didn't like any of that; he was not intrigued or attracted by it. It has been suggested that John Huston was an atheist, but his religious beliefs are hard to determine.
He claimed that he had no orthodox religion. Dorothy Harvey m. Humphrey Bogart was one of his best friends, and Huston delivered the eulogy at his funeral. He visited Ireland several times afterwards and on one of these visits, he purchased and restored a Georgian home, St Clerans, of Craughwell , County Galway. He renounced his U. A film school is now dedicated to him on the NUI Galway campus. Huston was an accomplished painter who wrote in his autobiography, "Nothing has played a more important role in my life".
As a young man, he studied at the Smith School of Art in Los Angeles but dropped out within a few months. He painted throughout his life and had studios in each of his homes. He had owned a wide collection of art, including a notable collection of Pre-Columbian art. A heavy smoker, Huston was diagnosed with emphysema in By the last year of his life he could not breathe for more than twenty minutes without needing oxygen.
The film material at the Academy Film Archive is complemented by production files, photographs, and personal correspondence found in the John Huston papers, —, at the Academy's Margaret Herrick Library. Huston received 15 Oscar nominations in the course of his career, and is the oldest person ever to be nominated for the Best Director Oscar when, at 79 years old, he was nominated for Prizzi's Honor Huston also won a Golden Globe for that film.
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures in He also has the unique distinction of directing both his father Walter and his daughter Anjelica in Oscar -winning performances in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre and Prizzi's Honor , respectively , making the Hustons the first family to have three generations of Academy Award winners.
He also directed her in Sinful Davey in In , Huston was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contribution to motion pictures. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American film director, screenwriter and actor. For other people named John Huston, see John Huston disambiguation. Nevada, Missouri , U.
Middletown, Rhode Island , U. Film director screenwriter actor visual artist. Dorothy Harvey. Lesley Black. Evelyn Keyes. Enrica Soma. Celeste Shane. Walter Huston father. Play media. I miss the order that old Hollywood had. It was much easier then to get a picture made than it is today.
They were people who wanted to make pictures, and they knew how to make them. They weren't accountants and bookkeepers, tax consultants and efficiency experts who don't know how to make pictures, or wheeler-dealers; that element just seems to have taken over today—promoters who just want to get a part of the action rather than people who want to make good movies.
John has meant a great deal in my life. Nobody would have heard of me if it hadn't been for him. Working with John ten years later is very good. He's a different kind of director than the people I've been working with. He's an artist with a camera—he sees it like a painter. New York Times. Archived from the original on January 11, Moviemakers Quercus , pp.
World Film Directors , Vol. I, —, New York, The H. Wilson Co. HuffPost UK. July 8, An Open Book , New York. Alfred A. Knopf American Film Institute. Retrieved May 10, Knopf , pp. The Village Voice. Retrieved Green Shadows, White Whale. Harper Perennial, The New York Times. International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers: Directors 3rd ed.
James Press , pp. The Hollywood Story. Wallflower Press. Epics, spectacles, and blockbusters: a Hollywood history p. Retrieved 25 March Irish Independent. Retrieved February 7, Rocky Road to Dublin. Cinematography by Raoul Coutard, 17 May January 1, Chicago Sun-Times , film review, January 1, John Huston: Courage and Art. I was on my own there. I think Huston was baffled by the script, which was very Catholic, whereas he was a devout atheist. Los Angeles Times.
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